Volume 5, Number 2 (Vol.5 No.1 Apr 2017)                   rbmb.net 2017, 5(2): 73-82 | Back to browse issues page


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Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran
Abstract:   (3069 Views)

Bone is formed through the processes of endochondral and intramembranous ossification. In endochondral ossification primary mesenchymal cells differentiate to chondrocytes and then are progressively substituted by bone, while in intramembranous ossification mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiate directly into osteoblasts to form bone. The steps of osteogenic proliferation, differentiation, and bone homeostasis are controlled by various markers and signaling pathways. Bone needs to be remodeled to maintain integrity with osteoblasts, which are bone-forming cells, and osteoclasts, which are bone-degrading cells.

In this review we considered the major factors and signaling pathways in bone formation; these include fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), wingless-type (Wnt) genes, runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and osteoblast-specific transcription factor (osterix or OSX).

Keywords: BMP, FGF, Osteogenesis, OSX, RUNS2, Wnt
Full-Text [PDF 508 kb]   (1042 Downloads)    
Type of Article: Review | Subject: Biochemistry
Received: 2016/11/12 | Accepted: 2016/11/12 | Published: 2016/11/12